Archive for October, 2010

Integrated Memory Controller

October 31st, 2010 3 comments

More recent processors from Intel including the core i3, i5 and i7 processors come with integrated memory controller. A processor having integrated memory controller communicates with the memory directly. This is a departure from the designs of the earlier Intel processors, including the core 2, dual core and the Pentium 4 processors, in which the processor did not have memory controller and they did not communicate with the memory directly. Instead, the processors communicated with a chipset, more popularly called North Bridge. The North Bridge, in turn used to communicate to the memory controller.

A block diagram, taken from the intel website, showing the earlier architecture withe memory controller built in the North Bridge ( Intel officially calls it Memory Controller Hub) is shown in the diagram below.

There was certain advantage in moving the memory controller to the North Bridge, in place of the integrating it into the processor itself. Way back in early 1990s, the direction of the memory technology was not clear. There were several competing technologies ( SDRAM, DDR, other ?) each with its own pros and cons. If processor designer choose one memory technology, they would stuck with that technology and there was no way they could choose other memory technology even if they wished to.

The architecture of the processor system, therefore, decided to move the memory controller to the North Bridge. If, at any point, any one wanted to try a different memory system, they could change the North Bridge. The Processor stays same. This approach provided flexibility. However moving the memory controller to the north bridge came with its own set of problems. The processor had to communicate to the north bridge first, which in turn communicated to the memory. This increase the memory latency and reduced the overall system performance.

By the mid 1990s the DDR bus started becoming gaining more acceptance among memory menufacturers. AMD reasilised this and took the lead in taking the risk of moving the memory controller on the processor. By early 2000, AMD’s opteron series of the server processor, started rolling out. These were based upon the DDR integrated memory controller. Intel still continued with its older approach. Intel overcome the memory issue by increasing the amount of the cache in the processors.

Soon Intel realized that DDR2 and DDR3 are the stable technologies, it followed the AMD suite. With its core i3 , i5 and i7 processors, intel had the DDR3 integrated memory controller. A typical block diagram of the architecture with integrated memory controller, taken from Intel is shown in the block diagram below.

Notice that the Memory (in green on the left of the CPU ) is connected directly to the processor. The newer integrated memory controller improved the performance of the core i3, core i5 and core i7 processor significantly.

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Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS Review

October 31st, 2010 1 comment

About Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS

The Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White, model FDB520RHS will enable you to get more done during the day with its feature-packed specification that will surely give more value to your money. When you buy this product, you will get one unit of this dishwasher and an owner’s manual. Make sure you read on below to find out more about its features and what this product can do.

Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher  is built with a tall tub design such that it has enough room to contain dishes, pans, pots, or any kitchen items that you wanted to clean up. Meanwhile, it is built with vinyl racks and tines to accommodate various sizes and shapes of dishware and cookwares at home. You can also get electronic touchpad controls for simple navigation and ease of operation for various dishwasher settings.

There are four automatic cycles available for the Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher  which are: Heavy, Normal, Light, and Rinse. Each are equipped with a specific washing power that ensure your dishes are clean without damaging your dishware and cookware. In addition to the automatic cycles, you can choose from up to 4 levels of washing system that determines the arm system used. This will give you assurance that your dishes are cleaned thoroughly.

Innovative features are also incorporated into the Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS to give users optimum functionality. The delay start function, for instance, enable you to choose the most ideal time to start using this machine. On the other hand, a heated dry feature makes sure that all your dishes are thoroughly dry and ready to use at the end of each washing cycle.

You can enjoy all of these functionalities in a super quiet operation with the Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS’ UltraQuiet sound insulation package. In addition, a Hard-food disposer saves you time since you no longer have to pre-rinse your dishes. A self-cleaning filter is incorporated in here to ensure that water remains clean through the rinsing process.

For the eco-conscious consumer, the Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS is a perfect green dishwasher. First off, it comes with an Energy Star label as it utilizes at least 41 percent less energy in comparison to other dishwashers in the market. In addition, the advanced washing features eliminate the pre-rinsing process to further save energy. It also utilizes phosphate-free detergent when washing, and as you know phosphate is not good for the environment. So, by eliminating them in the equation, you can preserve the environment in the process.

Pro’s of Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS

*Efficient washing cycle for thorough clean;

*It is energy efficient;

*It saves you time due to the efficiency of cleaning quality;

*Smart design that saves you space;

*Ease of use and operation.

Con’s of Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS

*There are no notable drawbacks for this product.

The Bottom Line

Frigidaire 24” Tall Tub Built-in Dishwasher White FDB520RHS is recommended for those looking for a highly functional and dependable dishwasher at home. With its wide array of functional features, reliable brand name, and eco-friendly features, you can get the best value for your money.

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Benchmark – Windows 7 Enperience Index Processor

October 29th, 2010 6 comments

To compare two processor, we run several program to benchmark which one of them is faster. There are several benchmarking software available which take into account several different factors to measure processor speed. Some of them take pure arithmetic processing capability while some other try to simulate more real world computing scenario. No single benchmark is perfect.

The processor reviewers, therefore present a number of different benchmarking results when comparing processors. Two quick benchmarking tools are Super Pi and Windows 7 processor Experience index.

The Windows 7 Experience index rate several different components of the computer in a scale of  1 to 8.  The range higher than 8 may be possible in future.

How to check your computer Windows 7 Experience Index for processor.

Right click the computer and click properties. The System -> Rating show show the rating of the system. Notice that this is not really very meaningful, because it shows the minimum of all the different scores of the different components of the comuputer. Click on the Windows Experience Index next to the score. It will show the score of the individual components of the computer.

As an example the Windows 7 Experience Index of the computer ( with intel core i3-350M processor) used to write this article is 6.4.

Write down the Windows 7 Experience Index for your processor in the comment section below. Do not forget to mention the processor your computer uses.

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Benchmarking program – Super Pi

October 29th, 2010 10 comments

Benchmarking program – Super Pi

Super PI is a benchmarking software that tell how much time a computer takes to calculate value of pi to a specified number of digits after the decimal point. The Super Pi 1M result means how much time a computer takes to calculate the value of Pi  to 1 million digits after the decimal.

There are similar Super Pi 2M and Supper Pi 32M results and are used to describe the speed of a computer, especially for its processor.  A smaller number means faster processor. Usually a processor with higher clock  in the same series will take smaller time.

The Super Pi uses Gauss–Legendre algorithm.  The Super Pi is very common among the overclockers community to showcase how fast their system is.


Super Pi is more suited to the single threaded processor and it does not take into account the multi processing and multicore capability of the processors. It is criticized that the Super Pi does not reflect the real world multi processing, multi core capable modern processors.

How to calculate the Super Pi for your system.

To calculate the Super Pi for your system, download the Super Pi program from

Unzip it and run the Super Pi program. You can select the number of digits upto which the Super Pi needs to be calculated. The 1M and 2M are most common Values. You may also run 32M, but it may take long – typically 15 minutes.

As and example the Super Pi 1M figure  using the computer being used to write this article ( It is an Intel Core i3-350M processor at 2.27 GHz), while running on battery was found to be 20 seconds. The figures for the Super Pi 2M was found to be 48 seconds.

You may like to check Super Pi score for your computer and report it with processor number (Use properties of Computer to find what processor it has) and report it in the comment section below.

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Intel Ivy Bridge Processor Architecture – Intial Details

October 29th, 2010 No comments

Some initial details of the next generation Intel Ivy Bridge Processor architecture has started surfacing. The Ivy Bridge processor is successor to the Intel Sandy Bridge architecture.

The Ivy Bridge is expected to be based upon 22 nm technology one step forward to the Sandy Bridge’s 32 nm technology. The Ivy Bridge based processors will have twice the number of the shaders as compared to the Sandy Bridge. While Sandy Bridge has 12 shaders, the Ivy Bridge will have 24 shaders.

Doubling of the number of sharders will significantly increase the gaming performance of the Ivy Bridge based processors. The Sandy Bridge processors are already 2x faster than the current Nehalem ( core i5, core i5) based processors.

The Ivy Bridge processor are expected late 2011 or in 2012. There is not official information available about it. For now the focus seems to be getting the Sandy Bridge out. The Sandy bridge processors are expected to be available in notebooks and desktops in the first quarter of 2011.

The drivers and the corresponding software will still take some time. And this is the problem area intel will have to work on.  It will be interesting to see how the Ivy Bridge performs against AMD’s fusion with new bulldozer core.

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