Archive for April, 2011

Preparation for GRE

April 28th, 2011 No comments

Graduate Records Examination (GRE) ensures availability of plenty study materials for all. Some resources are available on ETS web portal. Previous questions and practice tests are available free of cost on many educational sites. The uniformity of exam and availability of preparation materials ensures perfect competition using all your skills to the full extent. Solving mathematical games and logic puzzles improve your thinking power by regular practice. To manage the time effectively and to complete the exam within the time span allotted (2.5 hrs), the mock tests can help.

Reading and comprehension skills are another area which needs your prime attention. Intelligent listening is needed to answer the questions based on passage. Your reading speed should be high to analyze long paragraphs in few minutes. Reading literature & scientific articles regularly helps to build deep vocabulary and to build a quick listening skill. Ability to concentrate brain more on what you’re doing will bring elevations to your emotional and intellectual capabilities of brain. But, never forget to relax by visiting a calm place. Develop the habit of scientific thinking integrates with your commonsense. Relaxed brains can retain learned information for a long time.

An interactive training material (Example audio video) etc… brings more interest and can produce better results by including more sense organs in the process of learning. Choosing an interactive multimedia tutorial uplifts your level of interest and concentration any subject. Moreover emotionally you need to make your learning an emotionally charged event. Analyzing complex mathematical charts at a few seconds observation is essential for management field aspirant. Any way what we see always depends on what we know. So improve the level of knowledge together with the intellectual thinking and emotional presence on each learning situations. Algebra & arithmetic items are so simple for those regularly doing quality practice questions.

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GRE exam structure

April 28th, 2011 1 comment

GRE exam has its defined structure to evaluate the applicants in context of intellectual and language capabilities required for graduate studies. GRE test involves the following major sections.

1. Analytical writing
2. Verbal reasoning
3. Quantitative reasoning

Quantitative reasoning part involves two questions. The first question has choice (You can select one from two) & it is on analysis of an issue or problem. You need to think for certain time to get the apt & strong view points to represent and justify your arguments with a good language and in good structure conveying all essentials of the topic. You’re allotted with a 45 minutes time to perform the task. The second question is to substantiate your view points critically evaluating the author’s arguments in a passage. For this the time allotted is 30 min.

Verbal part involves questions to check your vocabulary and listening skills. Synonyms antonyms, questions based on a passage given etc… are there. All questions are multiple choice types with 30 questions for 30 minutes. The level of difficulty is set automatically by the computer while you reach the first 10 questions. You can select from the options, but you need to select one answer to proceed to the next question. Questions once answered can’t be changed or reverted.
Analytical writing evaluates your skills in the area of mathematics involving questions touching the area of arithmetic, algebra & geometry involving some logical questions also. Some questions on logical session not directly reflect on your GRE score. Mathematical questions are comparatively difficult in view point of majority. 45 minutes are allowed for this session with 28 questions. You can save time by doing calculations in ETS calculator provided on the computer to save time in doing the same in mind.

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Graduate Records Examination (GRE) – Doorsteps for quality education

April 28th, 2011 No comments

GRE was conducted since 1942 by ETS (Educational Testing Services) in United States. This exam evaluates the aptitude & knowledge of students appearing for Post graduation & other higher studies in top notch colleges in United States, Canada & Britain. To secure a seat in a reputed foreign university is not a hurdle for the right candidate. This examination screens the logical, analytical and language skills of applicant. GRE scores are taken with a great priority by most foreign universities as an international standard for filtering the talented students to their institution.

GRE exam was criticized for its uniform structure in past decades. So the ETS is cautious enough to change the level & approach of questions continuously. From 2000-2010 major changes happened making this no.1 examination for foreign university admissions. GRE is fully computer based examination. However paper based examination is available for areas with internet access problems. GRE is conducted almost all days in each year. But with the latest notification from ETS there are some fixed dates each year. Candidates are required to choose a date of their convenience from suggestion list provided by ETS.

Exam centers are available for all major cities across the world. In each country ETS has its private partner to implement the GRE exam administration. The fee for GRE computer based examination costs around $170 for non US applicants. For US citizens the cost is about 140$. For paper based exam requests the fee may increase a little bit further. Registration can be done by contacting the ETS through their website, phone or fax. Exam fee is accepted by credit card. Other modes of payment are also available. While filling the registration form (manual form or online) you need to be cautious to fill up all details same as the identification documents provided for verification to ETS. If any mismatch occurs your candidature is canceled and the fee will not be refunded.

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Interview Questions for PCB Design Engineer Job

April 27th, 2011 10 comments

Here is a compilation of the questions that may be asked to a PCB Design Engineer. Be sure to read a lot about high speed design rules, layer stackup and characteristic impedance.

Q1. How do you calculate the trace impedance of a PCB trace ?

Answer – There are many methods. A formula method gives a quick result, though it is not highly accurate. A 2D Field solver gives more accurate result. The Trace impedance depends upon the width of the trace, separation from the ground / power plane, and the relative permittivity of the material

Q2. What is the difference between a blind and buried via

Answer -blind vias aare use to connect an inner layer to either the top or bottom layer. A buried via is used for connecting two inner layers. It does not go either to the top or the bottom layer. A regular via ( different from the blind and the buried via connects the top and the bottom layer and also passes through the inner layers.

Do not stop here. Go ahead and draw the diagram of the blind and the buried via.

Q3. What is the use of a decoupling capacitor.

Answer – A decoupling capacitor is used to smoothen the power supply noise. It should be placed as close to the ICs for which it is intended as possible.

Q4. What is DRC ? What Kind of DRC errors you find in PCB Design ?

Answer – DRC stands for Design Rule checking. A PCB should not have any electrical failure before we tape out for the manufacturing. Commong DRC errors include, trace to pad violation, pad to pad violation, component keep out violation. Additionally a PCB Design may have high speed design rule related contraints. This may include, length matching constraints, differential signal length mathching constraint.

Q5. What are the things you should do you ensure design for compliance for EMI ?

Answer – We should use commond mode chokes for all cables connectors. The common mode chokes should be placed as close to the connector as possible. The Power and ground planes should be as close to each other as possible. The High speed signal should refer to a ground or power plane and should not cross a split plane. Stitching capacitor should be used in case split plane is used.

Q6.A large thermal pad is divided into four sections ? What is the use of it ?

Answer – The open area between the 4 sections lead to escape of the gases during the reflow and soldering process. It leads to better manufacturability.

Q7. The width of a trace is increased ? Will its characteristic impedance increase of decrease ?

Answer – The Capacitance per unit length of the trace increases and therefore, the characteristic impedance of the trace decreases.

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Using Fancy Table in wordpress using plugin

April 27th, 2011 No comments

1. Login to your wordpress account and go to Plugins under the Appearance.
2.Click on the Add New Button Next to the Plugins
3. Search for “WP-Table Reloaded”. Hit the Search Plugin Button after you give your search term
4. Look at the first search result t”hat says – WP-Table Reloaded enables you to create and manage tables in your WP’s
admin area ….” etc” – in the last it should have something like by Tobias Bäthge”.
5. Click On Install Now under “WP-Table Reloaded”
6. Confirm and then click on “Activate Plugin”.
7. In the Dashboard, on the left hand side go to Tools. Look for WP-Table Reloaded. Click on that.
8. Click on Add a Table. Enter a Default Table name and Typical Number of Columns and Row and this will take you to the next screen. Give a Table ID – say,1. You will use this table id in future for similar tables.
9. Fill up the Table and Save it.
10. Use, the following to test the code.
[ table id=N alternating_row_colors= true /]
Do not forget to replace N by 1 or 2 etc..

11. Here is an example on how the Table looks like.

[table id=1 alternating_row_colors= true /]


– You may wrap the code around


to set the width of table of center it. For example look at the following code


1. If at any point of time you decide to delete the plugin, you stand to loose all the Tables. So be very careful, especially if you are using it for a large number of table.

2. The Table was foud to give a lot of space when the following was enabled

Yes, use the “DataTables” JavaScript library with this table. You can change further settings for this library below.

3. For more details please go to

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