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Transmission Systems in Automobiles

A transmission System in an Automobile provides different gear ratios between the engine and the drive wheels. The transmission system also works in the neutral and reverse gear.

There are two broad categories of transmission – the manual transmission and the automatic transmission. In the Manual Transmission, the driver shifts transmission by hand while this is done automatically taking into account the torque requirement, the car speed and the amount of the gas input.

The engine develops low torque at low speed and a high torque at high speed. The transmission system converts the speed and the torque developed by the engine to required speed and torque as demanded by the traction power. If we increase the gear ratio, or go to the higher gear, the speed increasesbut the available maximum torque reduces.

Transmission system provides the ability to the engine to stay within a required rotation speed while providing variable speed at given torque. Running at higher transmission level increases speed reduces gas consumption but also reduces the amount of available torque.

A Transmission is generally a separate unit, but, in some cases, it may be combined with the drive axles to form a trans-axle unit and are generally found in front drive vehicles.

Transmission Unit is also responsible for front and reverse movement of the car.  Older transmissions used to come in three forward speed grades but newer transmissions mostly come in 5 and in some cases 6 speed grades. Continuous Variable Transmission ( CVT) has also started appearing in more vehicles now a days.  The CVT provides infinite number of gear ratios . This is done by transmitting torque between two variable pulleys. By using a CVT system it is possible to operate the engine at optimum speed most of the time.



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